Bacteria in Parmesan: Is It Fermented?

Last Updated on September 25, 2023 by Aaron

Parmesan cheese, officially known as Parmigiano-Reggiano when it originates from the designated areas in Italy, is a hard, aged cheese that is renowned for its rich flavor and granular texture.

The production of Parmesan involves the use of bacteria, which are responsible for the fermentation and the development of the cheese’s distinctive taste and texture.

Probiotic Bacteria in Cheese Fermentation

Like many cheeses, Parmesan production begins by adding starter cultures to milk. These cultures typically contain lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus species. You can see the detailed steps in this article. These bacteria convert the lactose (sugar) in milk into lactic acid, which initiates the fermentation process. This drop in pH coagulates the milk proteins, forming curds.

Producers can use different combinations of bacteria, or starter cultures, when making cheese, and this is one of the reasons why there are so many different varieties and flavors of cheese available. The choice and combination of bacteria will influence the flavor, texture, aroma, and other properties of the cheese.

For Parmesan and other traditional PDO cheeses, there are often specific strains of bacteria that are typically used, and these have been selected over time for the qualities they impart to the cheese. However, even within the category of a specific cheese like Parmigiano-Reggiano, there can be subtle variations in flavor based on the specific bacteria used, the feed given to the cows, the time of year the milk was produced, and other factors.

Most of the time, two primary types of bacterial cultures are mesophilic cultures: These bacteria thrive at moderate temperatures and are used for cheeses like Cheddar, Colby, and Gouda. Common mesophilic bacteria include Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris.

And, thermophilic cultures: These bacteria are adapted to higher temperatures and are used for cheeses like Parmesan, Mozzarella, and Swiss. Common thermophilic bacteria include Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus.

The primary bacteria used in Parmigiano-Reggiano (1) production are the Lactobacillus strains, including the Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus lactis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The Streptococcus thermophilus is often being used in tandem as well, it’s known for producing lactic acid quickly, helping in the curdling process.

A study analyzed 187 bacteria strains from the different stages in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The bacteria species clusters showed a high biodiversity and complexity presence in the cheese.

In addition to the added starter cultures, the raw milk used for Parmigiano-Reggiano PDO contains its own natural microbial flora. These native microorganisms, which can include various strains of lactic acid bacteria, further contribute to the fermentation process and the cheese’s unique flavor profile. That’s why it’s hard to find the same taste outside of the restricted PDO region.

As the cheese ages, different strains of lactic acid bacteria become more prominent, contributing to the ripening process and flavor development. These can include strains like Lactobacillus casei (which contributes to the browning of parmesan2) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus3, which is also a probiotic.

As on the rind of Parmesan,

This rind can also host beneficial bacteria and molds that contribute to the maturation and flavor profile of the cheese.

The presence of beneficial microorganisms is a characteristic of many aged cheeses, not just Parmesan. These microorganisms can have numerous effects, from enhancing flavor to protecting the cheese from harmful pathogens. In fact, some of the flavors and aromas of aged cheeses are due to the metabolic by-products of these bacteria and molds.

If you’re like me, then the thought of bacteria makes you cringe. The word “bacteria” often brings to mind images of scary germs and diseases. However, not all bacteria are bad! Just as there are helpful microorganisms in your gut that make it more healthy and happy.

In this blog post, we will discuss what kind of bacteria can be found in parmesan cheese and why these good guys might be beneficial for your health!

A Population of Bacteria

Parmesan cheese (aka Parmigiano Reggiano) is a fermented dairy product and is produced by a population of microorganisms that are confined to the area around Parma, Italy.

It usually requires at least 12 months to age. During this time, a wide range of microorganisms produces the cheese’s unique flavor and texture.

To make parmesan, the cheese-makers also added bacteria culture (starter) to the milk. This starter culture contains lactic acid bacteria, which break down the lactose in milk into lactic acid! This is beneficial for those who are lactose intolerant.

Lactic acid provides several benefits including improved gut health, nutrient absorptions, and protection against cell damages.

In addition to that, other probiotic bacteria are also found in Parmesan cheese. These include Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus helveticus (1).

Lactobacillus bulgaricus is responsible for tart taste.

Streptococcus thermophilus contributes to a number of functional activities, including the production of vitamins.

Lactobacillus casei plays a key role in producing the appreciated aromas and helps in ripening.

Not just that, but there are over 180 strains of bacteria (2) that may be present in parmesan. However, the Lactobacillus is the dominant population, where they resist the growth of others.

The Harmful or Unwanted Bacteria

When making Parmesan, the cheese is submerged for about 6 hours in brined water. The process has been shown to limit only beneficial bacteria to remain and extend shelf life. It adds a little saltiness too!

The same goes for the notoriously stinky washed-rind cheese, where the cheese surface was repeatedly washed with brined water. The unwanted microorganisms are discouraged from multiplying.

Thanks for reading!

The white spots on your parmesan might not be mold at all, read my other article.

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